The University of California, Berkeley (also referred to as UC Berkeley; Berkeley; California; or simply Cal), is a public research university located in Berkeley, California. The university occupies 1,232 acres (499 ha) on the eastern side of the San Francisco Bay with the central campus resting on 178 acres (72 ha). Berkeley is the flagship institution of the 10 campus University of California system and one of only two UC campuses operating on a semester calendar, the other being UC Merced. Established in 1868 as the result of the merger of the private College of California and the public Agricultural, Mining, and Mechanical Arts College in Oakland, Berkeley is the oldest institution in the UC system and offers approximately 350 undergraduate and graduate degree programs in a wide range of disciplines. Berkeley has been charged with providing both “classical” and “practical” education for the state’s people. Berkeley co-manages three United States Department of Energy National Laboratories, including the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy. Berkeley faculty, alumni, and researchers have won 72 Nobel Prizes (including 30 alumni Nobel laureates), 9 Wolf Prizes, 7 Fields Medals, 15 Turing Awards, 45 MacArthur Fellowships, 20Academy Awards, and 11 Pulitzer Prizes. To date, UC Berkeley scientists have discovered 6 chemical elements of the periodic table (californium, seaborgium, berkelium, einsteinium, fermium,lawrencium). Along with Berkeley Lab, UC Berkeley researchers have discovered 16 chemical elements in total – more than any other university in the world. Berkeley is a founding member of theAssociation of American Universities and continues to have very high research activity with $652.4 million in research and development expenditures in 2009. Berkeley physicist J. Robert Oppenheimer was the scientific director of the Manhattan Project that developed the first atomic bomb in the world, which he personally headquartered at Los Alamos, New Mexico, during World War II. Faculty member Edward Teller was (together with Stanislaw Ulam) the “father of the hydrogen bomb”. Former United States Secretary of Energy and Nobel laureate Steven Chu (PhD 1976), was Director of Berkeley Lab from 2004–09.
California State University, Monterey Bay (CSUMB) is a small public university in the 23-campus California State University system on the site of the former U.S. Army base Fort Ord, on theCentral Coast of California. It is accredited by the Western Association of Schools and Colleges. CSUMB was founded in 1994 with a student enrollment of 654 students. Classes began August 28, 1995. The founding president was Peter Plympton Smith, Ph.D. It was the 21st campus in the California State University System and took as its slogan “The 21st campus for the 21st century.” The university offers 23 bachelor’s degrees, 7 master’s degrees, and teaching credentials. As of fall 2013, the university has about 5,732 students and 146 full-time faculty members. The university operates on the semester system. The institution seeks to distinguish itself through “outcomes-based education,” with undergraduates required to conduct a capstone research project and compile a portfolio demonstrating competency in their concentration, with a faculty member as adviser. Eduardo M. Ochoa was named interim president in May 2012; his appointment became permanent in May 2013.
Leland Stanford Junior University, or more commonly Stanford University, is a private research university in Stanford, California. It is one of the most prestigious universities in the world. The university was founded in 1885 by Leland Stanford, former governor of and U.S. senator from California and leading railroad tycoon, and his wife, Jane Lathrop Stanford, in memory of their only child, Leland Stanford, Jr., who died of typhoid fever at age 15 the previous year. Stanford was opened on October 1, 1891 as a coeducational and non-denominational institution. Tuition was free until the 1930s. The university struggled financially after Leland Stanford’s 1893 death and after much of the campus was damaged by the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. Following World War II, Provost Frederick Terman supported faculty and graduates’ entrepreneurialism to build self-sufficient local industry in what would become known as Silicon Valley. By 1970, Stanford was home to a linear accelerator, and was one of the original four ARPANET nodes (precursor to the Internet). The University is located in northern Silicon Valley near Palo Alto. Its 8,180-acre (3,310 ha) campus is one of the largest college campuses in the United States. Several other holdings, such as laboratories and nature reserves, are located outside the main campus. Its academic departments are organized into seven Schools with a student body of approximately 7,000 undergraduates and 8,900 graduates. Stanford has been the top fundraising university in the United States for several years, being the first school to raise more than a billion dollars in a year in 2012. Stanford students compete in 36 varsity sports, and the University is one of two private institutions in the Division I FBS Pacific-12 Conference. It has gained 105 NCAA championships, the second-most for a university, and has won the NACDA Directors’ Cup every year since 1994-1995. Stanford faculty and alumni have founded many companies including Google, Hewlett-Packard, Nike, Sun Microsystems, and Yahoo!, and companies founded by Stanford alumni generate more than $2.7 trillion in annual revenue, equivalent to the 10th-largest economy in the world. Fifty-eight Nobel laureates have been affiliated with the university, and it is the alma mater of 30 living billionaires, 17 astronauts, and 18 Turing Award laureates. It is also one of the leading producers of members of the United States Congress.